MA Fourth Semester

Course Title: Population, Migration and Remittance

Course No.:  RDS 581

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                        Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Third                                                                               Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course Objectives

The objective of this course is to enhance knowledge of students on population and its interrelationship with migration and remittance. The topics are as follows:

Course Contents                                                                                                    LH

Unit I: Fertility, Mortality and Development                                                 15

1.1 Population as a development issue

1.2 Fertility, culture and development

1.3 Mortality, disease and development

Unit II: Migration and Development                                                                 10

2.1 Conceptualizing migration

2.2 Relevant theories of migration

2.3 Migration and development linkage

2.4 World migration report 2018

Unit III: Migration and Remittances                                                                  15

4.1 Remittances and conceptual Issues

4.2 Determinants of migrant remittances

4.3 Role of remittances in rural development

4.4 Trends in migration and remittances

Unit IV: Migration and Remittances Interrelationship in Nepalese Context 8

3.1 Migration trends and patterns in Nepal

3.2 Labour migration and remittances in Nepal

3.3 Remittances trends in Nepal


Gould, W.T.S. (2009). Population and development. UK: Routledge

Ellis, Frank (2003). A livelihoods approach to migration and poverty reduction, Paper Commissioned by the Department for International Development (DFID), Contract No.: CNTR 03 4890. The United Kingdom: University of East Anglia.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2018). World migration report 2018: Switzerland: IOM

Kathiwada, P.P (2014). International Migration and Citizenship in Nepal. Population Monograph of Nepal, (VOL. I, p 211-283). Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics.

Suwal, B. (2014). Internal Migration in Nepal. Population Monograph of Nepal, (VOL. I, p 241-239). Kathmandu, Nepal: Central Bureau of Statistics.

Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino and J. Edward Taylor (1994). An evaluation of international migration theory. Population and Development Review, 20 (4), 699-751.

Ravenstein, E.G. (1889). The Laws of Migration. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 52, 241-305.

Todaro, Michael P. (1997). Internal migration in developing countries: A review of theory, evidence, methodology and research priorities. Geneva: International Labour Organization.

United Nations (1990). Convention on the protection of the rights of all migrant workers and members of their families (CMW). New York: United Nations.

United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2017). International Migration Report 2017: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/404).

Course Title: Human Resources Management (HRM)

Course No.: RDS 582

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                       Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                              Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course Objective

The objective of the course is to teach the basic concept of human resource management, its practices, development and management. The course will introduce the students to practices and techniques for evaluating performance, structuring teams, coaching and mentoring staffs, and performing the wide range of other people related duties of a manager in today’s increasingly complex workplace.

Course Contents                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Conceptual Understanding of HRM                                                     10

1.1 The philosophy of HRM (with international perspective)

1.2 Propose of HRM

1.3 HRM as system/model

1.4 Context of HRM

1.5 Characteristics of HRM

1.6 Function of HRM

1.7 Difference between HRM and personal management

1.8 Impact of HR practice on performance

1.9 Roles and responsibilities of HR practitioners

1.10 Critical evaluation of the concept of HRM

Unit II: Human Resources Planning and Development                              15

2.1 Human Resources Planning: Importance, Approaches and Process.

2.2 Job Design: Steps, benefits and methods.

2.3 Job Analysis: Components, purposes, techniques

2.4 Job Analysis: Information and data collection methods

2.5 Recruitment: Sources, policies, steps and methods

2.6 Selection: Steps and methods

2.7 Differences between Recruitment and Selection

2.8 Socialization: Purpose and process

2.9 Training and career development: Purpose, need assessment, and method.

2.10 Factors affecting human resource development

Unit III: Human Resource Management                                                           15

3.1 Motivation: Objectives and types

3.2 Performance appraisal: Importance and process

3.3 Compensation Management: Types of compensation, incentive and its purpose

3.4 Employee Discipline: Disciplinary problems and actions

3.5 Employee Relations: Purpose and process, Employee Disputes: types, causes, prevention and settlement

3.6 Employee Welfare: Objectives and types

Unit IV: Human Resource Management Practices in Nepal                         8

4.1 Training and development practices in Nepal

4.2 Existing problems related to training in Civil Service in Nepal

4.3 Career planning and development practices in Nepalese Civil Service

4.4 Bases/Criteria of career development in Nepal as per Public Service Act 1992, 1998, 2005

4.5 Performance appraisal system in the Nepalese Civil Service


Armstrong, Michael (2010). Armstrong’s essential human resource management practice: a guide to people management. India: Replika Press Pvt. Ltd.

Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong’s handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.

Aswathappa, K. (2012). Human resource management (6th ed.). New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Education Private Ltd.

Dessler, G. and B. Varkkey (2011). Human resource management (12th ed.). New Delhi: Dorling Kindersley Pvt. Ltd.

Gupta, C.B. (2008). Human resource management (19th ed.). New Delhi: Sultan Chand and Sons.

Martin, J. (2010). Key concepts in human resource management. New Delhi: Sage.

Mukherjee, J. (2012). Designing human resource management systems. New Delhi: Sage Response.

Course Title: Natural Resource Management (NRM)-Optional

Course No.: RDS 583

Nature of the Course: Theory                                              Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                       Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                              Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course Objectives

This course is prepared to impart students with the knowhow of environmental and natural resources. Specifically, this course acquaints students with theoretical and practical knowledge of natural resource management techniques and tools while working in the field of development.

Course Contents                                                                                                   LH

Unit I: Concept of Natural Resources Management                                       8

1.1 Concept Types and Status of Natural Resources

1.2 Environmental problem/crisis

1.3 Natural resource management and rural development

1.4 Different thought of Human-nature interrelationship (Determinism, Possibilism and Interactionalism)

Unit II: Issues of Natural Resource Management                                         12

2.1 Water Induced Disaster and its Management

2.2 Land degradation: Causes and Consequences

2.3 Land Resource Use System: Shifting Cultivation, Transhumance and Integrated Farming System

2.4 Payment of Environmental Services

2.5 Reducing of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD)

Unit III: Approaches, Policy and Practices of Natural Resource Management  13

3.1 Water Related Policies in Nepal

3.2 Natural Resource Conflict Management

3.3 Wetland and watershed Management

3.4 Community based Natural Resource Management

3.5 Common Pool Resource Management (G. Hardin and Then after)

Unit IV: Techniques and Tools for Natural Resources Management       15

4.1 Identification of key environmental issues and determination of priority order

4.2 DPSIR (Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) Analytical Framework

4.3 Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Analysis (SIA)

4.4 Vulnerability Capacity Assessment


Barrow, C J. (2000). Environmental management: Principle and practices. London: Routledge

Bhusal, M.P. (2012). Natural resource management (in Nepali). Kathmandu: Pairavi Prakashan.

Bishop, B C (1991). Karnali under stress: Livelihood strategies and seasonal rhythms in a changing Nepal Himalaya. Chicago: The University Press.

Brower, B. (1990). Sherap of Khumbu: People, livestock and landscape. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chhetri R. B. & Gurung O. (Eds.) (1999). Anthropology and sociology in Nepal. Kathmandu: SASON.

Disaster Review (current). Water induced disaster prevention technical centre (DPTC), Lalitpur, Nepal.

Environmental Protection Council (1993). Nepal environmental policy and action plan: Integrated environment and development. Kathmandu: National Planning Commission.

FAO (1976). A framework for land evaluation 1976. FAO

George, H, Stankey, Roger N, Clark, B & Bormann, T (2005). Adaptive Management of Natural Resources: Theory, Concepts, and Management Institutions. USDA.

ICIMOD/UNEP/MOEST. (2007). Kathmandu Valley Environment Outlook 2007. Kathmandu: ICIMOD.

Ives, J D & Messerli, B (1989). Himalayan dilemma: Reconciling development and conservation. London: Routledge.

Karkee, K., (2004). Land degradation in Nepal: A menace to economy and ecosystems international Master’s Programme in environmental science, University of Lund, Sweden.

Kenddeigh, S C (1980). Ecology: With special reference to animal and man. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.

Kunwar, K.J. (2008). Payment of Environmental Services: A case study of Shivapuri National Park, Kathmandu, Nepal. The Initiative 2008. Accessed from

MoI (2006). Water induced disaster management policy. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Irrigation.

MoWR. (2007). Development of database for irrigation development in Nepal. Lalitpur: Government of Nepal, Ministry of Water Resources, Department of Irrigation, Planning, Design, and Monitoring & Evaluation Division.

Ostrom, E. (1990). Governing the commons: The Evolution of institutions for collective action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pradhan, P.K & Pradhan, B. (2012). Environment and natural resources: Concepts, methods, planning and management. Kathmandu: Quest Publication.

Shukla et al. (1997). Participatory irrigation management in Nepal, Department of Irrigation, Kathmandu.

Stevens, S. F. (1993). Claiming the high grounds: Sherpas, submsistences and environmental change in the highest Himalaya. Berkeley: University of California Press.

UNEP (1997). Global environmental outlook. United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).

UNEP (2001). Nepal: State of the environment 2001. Bangkok: UNEP.

Course Title: Marketing and Entrepreneurship Development (Optional)

Course No.:  RDS 584

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: Second                                                                       Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: Fourth                                                                              Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course Objectives

This course aims to impart student the concept of marketing and entrepreneurship development. It will enhance their skill to analyze the nature, process and strategies associated with marketing and its relationship with entrepreneur.

Course Contents                                                                                                    LH

Unit I: Foundations of Entrepreneurship                                                       15

1.1 Introduction to Entrepreneurship

1.1.1 Entrepreneurship in economic theory

1.1.2 Conception of entrepreneurship

1.1.3 Entrepreneurship, economic development and Institutions

1.1.4 Entrepreneurship as rural economic development policy

1.2 Theories of Entrepreneurship

1.2.1 Early theories of entrepreneurship (Cantillon to Marshall)

1.2.2 Antecedents to the entrepreneurial-discovery approach

1.2.3 Kirzner’s theory of entrepreneurial discovery

1.2.4 Characteristics of entrepreneurial alertness

1.2.5 Kirzner’s conception of the market process

Unit II: Institutions, Culture and Entrepreneurship                                   10

2.1 Psychological determinants

2.2 Institutions I: Rule of law, property and contract

2.3 Institutions II: Money, political and legal decentralisation and economic freedom

2.4 Culture and alertness

Unit III: Measuring Entrepreneurship and GEDI                                        15

2.1 Measuring Basic Entrepreneurship

2.1.1 Self-employment rate

2.1.2 Business ownership rate

2.1.3 Entry and exit rates

2.1.4 GEM and TEAI

2.1.5 Other measures

2.2 Designing Composite Entrepreneurship Indicators

2.2.1 Selecting dimensions and indicators

2.2.2 Estimating composite indicators (Methods I-IV)

2.3 Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI)

2.3.1 Global entrepreneurship and development index

2.3.2 Performance by country and country group

2.3.3 Enhancing entrepreneurship ecosystems

2.3.4 Methodology and data description

Unit IV: Entrepreneurship and Business Environment in Nepal               8

4.1 Micro-Enterprise Policies 2008

4.2 Industrial Policies, 2011

4.3 Development of Manufacturing Industries in Nepal


Acs, Zoltan, László Szerb & Erkko Autio (2016). Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index 2015. Switzerland: Springer

Agrawal, G. R. (2006). Entrepreneurship development in Nepal. Kathmandu: MK Publishers

Badi, R.V and NV Badi (2008). Rural Marketing. India: Meena Pandey

Basyal, R. (2008). Rural development, Practices in SAARC countries, some innovative cases. Kathmandu: Richa Basyal

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (2014). Development of manufacturing industries in Nepal: Current states and future challenges. Kathmandu: CBS

Dabson, Brian (2007). Entrepreneurship as Rural Economic Development Policy. In Norman Walzer (Ed.), Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development (pp 21-38). UK: Lexington Books

Harper, David A. (2003). Foundations of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. London: Routledge

Koirala, K. D. (2010). Principles of marketing. Kathmandu: MK Publishers

Kotler, Philip, Gary Armstrong, John Sounders, Veronica Wong (8th Ed.) (1999). Principle of Marketing. USA: Prentice Hall Inc.

International Labour Organization (ILO) (2005). A Report on micro and small enterprise policy review in Nepal. Kathmandu: ILO

Montanye, James A. (2006). Entrepreneurship. The Independent Review, 10 (4), 547-569.

Nuadé, Wim (Ed.) (2011). Entrepreneurship and economic development. UK: Palgrave Macmillan in Association with United Nations University

Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2003). Entrepreneurship support for target groups. In Entrepreneurship and local economic development: Programme and policy recommendation (pp. 107-118). France: OECD

Parker, Simon C (2009). The Economics of Entrepreneurship. UK: Cambridge University Press

Poudel, K. L. (2008). Agribusiness management. Nepal: HICAST

Stam, Erik (2008). Entrepreneurship and innovation. In B. Nooteboom & E. Stam (Eds.), Micro-foundations for innovation policy (pp. 135-172). Amsterdam University Press.

Walzer, Norman (Ed.) (2007). Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development. UK: Lexington Books

Yadav, R. (2002). A new perspective on rural marketing. India: Jico Publishing House.