MA First Semester

Course Title: Development: Theory and Discourse

Course No.: RDS 551

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                   Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                             Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                                 Total Period: 48

 Course Objectives

The general objective of this course is to acquaint students with the theories and discourses of development. The specific objectives are; to trace the root of the concept development and rural development, to analyze shift in development thinking, to analyze the mainstream and alternative development theories and discourses, to get equip with different timelines of the ideas of rural development and to critically analyze the applicability of endogenous and alternative theories of rural development in the context of Nepal. It is expected that after completion of this course students will be able to relate theory of rural development in different contexts.

Course Contents                                                                                                    LH

Chapter I: Origin of Development Concept                                                       6

1.1 Genesis of Development

1.2 Classical economics and development (Assumptions and critique)

1.3 Neo-classical economics and development (Assumptions and critique)

1.4 Paradigm shift in development thinking

1.4.1. Beginning of development era

Chapter II: Development Theories and Discourse                                                    20

2.1 Mainstream development theories (Modernization, Dependency/World   System Theory)

2.3 Alternative development theories (Sustainable development, Human       development and Inclusive development)

2.4 Post-development discourses

Chapter III: Rural Development: Concept and Theories                                        15

3.1 Origin of concept

3.2 Theories of rural development

3.2.1 Exogenous rural development (Concept of growth and mode of development)

3.2.2 Endogenous rural development (Growth pattern, resource utilization and actors)

3.2.3 Alternative rural development (Social justice, Equity, self-reliance and Third Worldism)

Chapter IV: Rural Development Timeline and Approaches                                   7

4.1 Rural development timeline after 1950s

4.2 Review of rural development approaches

4.2.1 Community development

4.2.2 Basic need approach

4.2.3 Integrated rural development approach

4.2.4 Right based approach

4.2.5 Rural livelihood approach


Adhikari, S.P. (2000). Rural development in Nepal: Problems and prospects (2nd Ed). Kathmandu: Sajha Prakashan

Ellis, F. and Biggs, S. (2001). Evolving themes in rural development 1950s-2000s, In Development Policy Review, 19 (4), Pp.437-448. Available at <>.

Gandhi, M.K. (1952). Rebuilding our villages. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

—————–(1962). Village swaraj. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House.

Galbraith, J.K. (1997). A History of Economics: The past as the present. London: Hamish Hamilton

Ghimire, A., Upreti, B.R. & Pokhral, S. (2010). Livelihood strategies of internally displaced people in Western Nepal: Some observations (Pp. 217-239). In Bishnu Raj Upreti and Ulrike Muller-Boker (Eds.). Livelihood insecurity and social conflict in Nepal. Kathmandu: Swiss National Centre of Competence in Research (NCCR) North-South.

Keen, S. (2011). Debunking economics. London: Zed Books

Koirala, B.P. (1982). Democracy indispensable for development. Kathmandu: Shushil   Koirala

Kunwar, K. B. (2010). Rural development in developing countries (2nd ed.). Kathmandu: Meena Prakashan

Landreth, H. and Colandar, D.C.(2002). History of economic thought. Boston &Toronto: Houghton Miffin.

Margarian, A. (June-July, 2011). Endogenous Rural Development: Empowerment or Abandonment? Available at <>

Mathema, K.R.B. (2001). Strategies of rural development in Nepal: Some observations some thoughts. Kathmandu: Sita Devi Mathema

Mikkelsen, B. (2005). Methods of development work and research: a new guide for practitioner (2nd edition). India: Sage Publications.

Milonakis, D. and Fine, B. (2009). From political economy to economics: Method, the social and the historical in the evolution of economic theory. London & New York: Routledge.

Nederveen Pieterse, J. (2010).  Development theory. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Rai, A. (2017). Rural development:Theory and discourse. Kathmandu: Kasthmandap Pustak Ghar.

Rai, A. (2017). A preliminary inquiry into theories of development. South Carolina: CreatSpace.

Rist, G. (2008). History of development: From Western Origin to global faith (3rd Ed.). London: Zed Books

Seligson, M.A. & Passe-Smith, J.T. (2010). Development anduUnderdevelopment: The political economy    of global inequality. New Delhi: Viva Books.

Sen, A. (2005). Commodities and capabilities (8th edition). North Holland: Amsterdam.

………. (2000). Development as freedom (Indian edition). New Delhi: Oxford University    Press.

Sengupta, A; Negi, A and Basu, M. (Eds) (2007). Reflections on the right to development. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Singapore: Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd.

UNDP (1990). Human development report, 1990. New York: UNDP.

Van Der Ploeg (2000). Rural development: from practices and policies toward theory. Sociologia Ruralis, (40), 4. Pp. 391-408. Available at < <>.

William, A.T. and Christopher, A.J. (2011). Rural development, concepts and recent approaches. India: Rawat Publications.

Course Title: Economic Dimension of Development

Course No.: RDS 552

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                             Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objectives

The overall objective of this course is to impart the knowledge of various economic dimensions of rural development.  The concepts, theories and issues of economic aspects have been introduced so as to provide to the students an ample opportunity to gain insight knowledge on economic dimension of rural development. The core aspect of this course is to enable students to know the theoretical concept of economic development so that the knowledge could be applicable to solve the growing problems and issues of economic development from rural perspective.

Course Contents                                                                                                    LH

Unit I Introduction to Economic Development                                             10

1.1 Economic Growth, Economic Progress, and Economic Welfare

1.2 National Development, Regional Development and Local Development

1.3 Local Economic Development: Principle and Goals, Actors and Determinants

1.4 Different Sectors of Local Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary

1.5   Economic Status of Nepal: Comparative Study of Rural and Urban Sector

Unit II: Theories of Economic Growth                                                             17

2.1 Adam Smith: a theory of competitive capitalism and growth

2.2 Ricardo’s theories of diminishing returns and comparative advantage

2.3 Marx’s Analysis of Capitalist Development

2.4 Neoclassical Growth Models

2.5 Lewis Theory of Unlimited Supply of Labour

2.6 Myrdal Theory of Backward Effect

2.7 Balanced vs Unbalanced Theory

Unit III: Major Problems of Rural Development                                           10

3.1 Poverty

3.2 Inequality

3.3 Unemployment

3.4   Comparative Study of the Major Problems in the Different Provinces of Nepal

Unit IV: Economic Indicators of Development                                               11

4.1 Gross National Product

4.2 National Account

4.3 Income Distribution

4.4 Poverty Index

4.5 Human Development Index

4.6 Quality of Life/Better Life Index

4.7 Basic Concept of Econometrics


Agrawal, G.R. (2012). Entrepreneurship development in Nepal. Kathmandu: M.K. Publisher.

Blackely, E.J., & Ted, K.B. (2003). Planning local economic development: Theory & practice. New Delhi: Vistaar publication.

Bourguignon, François (2006). From income to endowments: The difficult task of expanding the income poverty paradigm. In David B. Grusky & Ravi Kanbur (Eds.), Poverty and inequality (pp. 76-102). California: Stanford University Press.

CBS (2010/11). Nepal living standard survey III. Kathmandu: CBS.

CBS (2011). Nepal population report, 2011. Kathmandu: CBS

Chambers, R. (1989). Rural development: Putting the last first. London: Longman Publishers

Gujarati, Damodar (2012). Econometrics by example. UK: Palgrave Macmillan

Haughton, J. & Khandker, S.R. (2009). Poverty ± inequality. Jaipur: Rawat Publications.

Horn, Robert V (1993). Development applications of indicators.  Statistical indicators for the economic and social sciences (pp. 67-101). UK: The Cambridge.

King, Megan F., Vivian F. Renó & Evlyn M. L. M. Novo (2014). The concept, dimensions and methods of assessment of human well-being within a socioecological context: A literature review. Social Indicators Research, 116(3), 681-698

Lekhi, R. K. (2008). Economic development and planning. New Delhi: Kalyani Publisher.

Mathema, K. R. B. (2008). Economics of development. Kirtipur: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Ministry of Finance (2017). Economic survey of Nepal, 2016/17. Kathmandu: MoF

National Planning Commission (NPC) (2016). Plan approach paper. Kathmandu: NPC

……………………………………… (2014). Nepal human development report 2014: Beyond geography, unlocking human potential. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.

Nussbaum, Martha C. (2006). Poverty and human functioning: Capabilities as fundamental entitlements. In David B. Grusky & Ravi Kanbur (Eds.), Poverty and inequality (pp. 47-75). California: Stanford University Press.

Seddon, D. (1998). Nepal: A state of poverty. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.

Sen, Amartya K (2006). Conceptulizing and measuring poverty. In David B. Grusky & Ravi Kanbur (Eds.), Poverty and inequality (pp. 30-46). California: Stanford University Press.

Shultz, T. (1962). Transforming traditional agriculture. New Haven: Yale University Press

Singh, K. (2009). Rural development: Principles, policies and management (3rd edition). New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Todaro, M.P & Smith, S.C. (2010). Economic development (10th edition). Delhi: Pearson Education Asia.

World Development Reports (latest)

Course Title: Socio-Cultural Dimension of Development

Course No.: RDS 553

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                             Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objectives

In general, this course aims to deal with socio-cultural factors that are significant in rural development process. The specific aims are to dig up link between social factors and rural development, to analyze various perspectives of sociology and anthropology relevant to rural development and to highlight how socio-anthropological methods are applicable to address socio-cultural issues in Nepal.

Course Contents                                                                                                                 LH

Unit I: Socio-Cultural Perspectives for Rural Development                      20

1.1 Socio-Cultural Perspectives (e.g., Auguste Comte, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber)

1.2 Rethinking the Perspectives (e.g., Talcott Parsons, Jürgen Habermas, Anthony Giddens)

1.3 Post-modernity (e.g., Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault)

1.4 Post-Structuralism (e.g., Jean Baudrillard)

1.5 Diffusion Approach

Unit II: Major Social Dimensions of Rural Development                            10

2.1 Population Change

2.2 Culture

2.3 Social Inclusion

2.4 Conflict Resolution

2.5 Human Capital (e.g., Health and Education)

2.6 Social Innovation

Unit II: Measures of Social Development                                                           9

3.1 Characteristics of Rural

3.2 Typologies of Regions

3.3 Social Development and Its Indicators

3.4 Requirements of Indicators and Their Assessment

3.5 Themes and Set of Indicators

Unit IV: Data on Social Indicators                                                                       9

4.1 Population Composition

4.2 Health

4.3 Education

4.4 Social Composition

4.5 Religion


Arturo, E (1995). Encountering development: The making and unmaking of the Third World. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Ben, Agger (1991). “Critical theory, poststructuralism, postmodernism: Their sociological relevance”. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 105-131.

Blaut, James M. (1977). Two views of diffusion. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 67 (3), 343-349.

Bulatao, Rodolfo, A (2001). Introduction. Population and Development Review (pp.1-14), 27 (supplement): Global Fertility Transition.

Bund Eva, Ulrike Gerhard, Michael Hoelscher & Georg Mildenberger (2015). A methodological framework for measuring social innovation[Special issue]. Historical Social Research / Historische Sozialforschung, 40 (3/153), 48-78.

Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) (2014). Population monograph of Nepal (Vols. I, II, III). Kathmandu: CBS

Charbit, Yves (2009). The population controversies beyond. Economic, social and demographic thought in the XIXth century (pp. 1-8). France: Springer.

Deutsh, Morton (1983). Conflict resolution: Theory and practice. Political Psychology, 4(3), 431-453.

Gurung, Harka (2003). Social demography of Nepal: Census 2001. Nepal: Himal Books

Hartog, Joop & Henriette Van Den Brink (2007). The effect of education on health. In Joop Hartog and Henriette Van Den Brink (Eds.), Human Capital: Advances in Theory and Evidences (pp. 21-37). New York: Cambridge University Press,

Höfer, A. (1979). The caste hierarchy and the state in Nepal: a study of Muluki Ain of 1854. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlang Wagner

Horn, Robert V (1993). Social Application of Indicators.  Statistical indicators for the economic and social sciences (pp 146-205). UK: The Cambridge Press.

Hutchinson, John & Anthony D. Smith (1996). Introduction. In John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith (Eds.), Ethnicity (pp.1-16). New York: Oxford Press

Lynne, Bennett (2005, December). Gender, caste and ethnic exclusion in Nepal: Following the policy process from analysis to action. Paper presented at Arusha Conference on New Frontier of Social Policy.

Malthus, Thomas (1798). An Essay on Principle of Population 1978. Retrieved from

McIntosh, Wm. Alex, Gerald E. Klonglan & Leslie D. Wilcox (1977). Theoretical Issues and Social Indicators: A Societal Process Approach. Policy Sciences, 8(3), 245-267

National Planning Commission (NPC) (2014). Nepal human development report 2014: Beyond geography, unlocking human potential. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.

Seidman, Steven (2016). Contested Knowledge: Social Theory Today. UK: Blackwell Publishing

Silver, Hilary (1995). Reconceptualizing social disadvantage: Three paradigms of social exclusion. In Gerry Rodgers, Charles Gore & Jose B. Fugueiredo (Eds.), Social exclusion: Rhetoric, responses and reality (pp. 57-80). Geneva: International Labour Organization.

United Nations (2007). Conceptual Framework. Rural households livelihood and wellbeing: Statistics on rural development and agriculture household income (pp.43-68). UN: New York and Geneva.

Course Title: Local Governance and Development

Course No.:  RDS 554

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Year: First                                                                            Time per Period: 1 hour

Semester: First                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course objective

The course aims to acquaint students with the knowledge of local governance system in Nepal, decentralization system and practices; development administration and different development paradigms and their application in the field of rural development.

Course Contents                                                                                                   LH

Unit I: Theories of Local Governance                                                               18

1.1 Governance and Development

1.2 Local Governance and Central-Local Relations

1.3 Alternative Models of Local Governance and Central-Local Relations

1.4 Multilevel Governance (MLG)

1.5 Good Governance

Unit II: Decentralization for Rural Development                                         12

2.1 Decentralization and Local Governance Approach

2.2 Forms and Types of Decentralization

2.3 Practices of Decentralization

2.4 Principles of Federalism and Unitary System

2.5 Determinants of Federalism and Unitary System

Unit III: Local Governance System in Nepal                                                   10

3.1 Structure of State and Distribution of State Power in Nepal

3.2 Interrelations between Federal, Provinces and Local Levels

3.3 Local Government in Nepal: Rural Municipalities, Urban Municipalities, District Coordination Committee (DCC) with special references of LSGA

3.4 Power/Jurisdictions of Local Level Government

3.4 Roles of Various Constitutional Commissions (e.g., Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority) in Good Governance

3.5 Role of Different Stakeholders (Development Partners, Market, Civil Society/ NGOs, CBOs) in Good Governance

3.6 Measuring Social Accountability

Unit IV: Development Administration                                                             10

4.1 Introduction to Development Administration

4.2 Approaches to Development Administration

4.3 Dimensions, Functions, Priorities and Characteristics of Development Administration

4.4 Development Administration in Nepal:  Practice, Challenges and Prospects


Awortwi, Nicholas (2016).  “Decentralisation and local governance approach: A prospect for implementing the post- 2015 sustainable development doals”. In Georgina M. Gómez and Peter Knorringa Eds. Local governance, economic development and institutions. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp39-63.

Bagchi, A. (1989). The political economy of underdevelopment. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Basu, D.D. (2008). Comparative federalism. Nagpur: Wadhwa and Company.

Bhatta, B.D. (1990). Decentralization in Nepal. New Delhi: Reliance Publication.

Chhotray, Vasudha & Gerry Stoker (2009). Governance theory and practice: A cross-disciplinary approach. UK: Palgrave Macmillan

Commeson, N.T. (2004). Civil society and social movement. New Delhi: Sage publication.

Dahal, D.R. (1994). Decentralization and development in Nepal. Kathmandu: NEFAS

Dahal, R.K. (2005). Rural development politics in Nepal. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bandar.

Dahal, R.K.  & Kharel, S. (2008). Local governance and political economy of Nepal. Kathmandu: Dikshanta Pustak Bhandar

Gyawali, C.K & Raj, P. (2010). Federalism in the world. Lalitpur: Chandra Kant Gyawali.

Herrera, Eduardo Wills (2016). Governance and development: The Importance of legitimacy
and institutional change. In Georgina M. Gómez and Peter Knorringa (Eds.), Local governance, economic development and institutions. UK: Palgrave Macmillan, pp19-38.

Jacob, T. (2007). Federalism and government. Jaipur India: Aavishkar publisher

Kapoor, A.C. (1981). Principles of government. New Delhi: S. Chand Ltd.

Khanal, R. (2005). Donor’s policies against corruption in Nepal. Kathmandu: Transparency International Nepal.

Khanal, R. (2005). Local governance in Nepal: Democracy at grassroots. Kathmandu: Smirti Books.

Majeed, A. (2010). An introduction to federalism. New Delhi: Centre for Federal Studies.

MIREST Nepal, (2013). Local Government in Nepal Series 1 and 2. Lalitpur: MIREST.

Mitra, Shabana (2013). Towards a multidimensional measure of governance. Social Indicators Research, 112(2),477-496.

Law Book Management Board (LBMB) (2015).  Nepal constitution 2015. Kathmandu: LBMB

Law Book Management Board (LBMB) (2017).   Local government Regulation Act 2017.  Kathmandu: LBMB.

Ministry of Federal Affairs and Local Development (MOFALD). SWOSHAN (Journal of Local Governance). Kathmandu: MOFALD.

Sapru, R. K. (1997). Development administration. India: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Shah, Anwar and Sana Shah (2006). The new vision of local governance and the evolving roles of local governments. In Anwar Shah (Ed.), Local governance in developing countries (pp. 1-43). Washington: The World Bank.

Sharma, P. (2003). Local development planning in Nepal: An empirical experience. Kathmandu: Kshitiz Publication.

Shresth, T.N. (1996). Concept of local government and decentralization. Kathmandu: Joshi Publications.

Upreti, H. (1996). Crisis of governance. Kathmandu: GDS.

Werlin, Herbert H. (2003). Poor nations, rich nations: A theory of governance.
 Public Administration Review, 63(3), 329-342.

Publications of Associations of 2 level governments (DCC, Municipality & Rural Municipality Associations)

Publications of Transparency International Nepal (2014). National integrity system assessment Nepal 2014. Kathmandu: Transparency International Nepal

Publications of PROPUBLICO.

Course Title: Measurements in Development

Course No.: RDS 565

Year: First                                                                            Time per Period: 1 hour

Nature of the Course: Theory                                                  Period per Week: 3

Semester: First                                                                                 Total Period: 48

Level: MA

Course Objectives

The general objectives of this course are to impart knowledge and level of understanding of social statistics with their application and to make students familiar with research techniques and tools in social sciences. Specifically, this course is designed to enhance knowledge and understanding of simple statistical analysis about central tendency and dispersion, correlation and regression, probability distribution and sampling techniques.

Course Contents                                                                                                     LH

Unit I: Descriptive Statistics                                                                                 12

1.1 Review of Measure of Central Tendency and Dispersion

1.2 Coefficient of Correlation

1.3 Partial and Multiple Correlations

1.4 Simple and Multiple Regression Analysis

Unit II:  Probability and Probability Distribution                                         10

2.1 Theory of Probability

2.2 Probability Distribution

2.3 Mathematical Expectation

2.4 Binomial and Normal Distribution

Unit: III Inferential Statistics                                                                              18

3.1 Sampling Techniques

3.2 Sampling Distribution

3.3 Point Estimation

3.4 Hypothesis

3.5 Sample Size Determination

3.6 Parametric Tests (z, t and F)

3.7 Analysis of Variance

3.8 Nonparametric Tests (Chi-square(χ²) Test, Sign Test, , Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, Rank Sum Test, Mann-Whitney Test)

Unit IV: Measurements in Development with Introduction to SPSS and GIS 7

4.1 Human Development Index

4.2 Multidimensional Poverty Index

4.3 Gini Coefficient

Note: The SPSS class is mandatory to teach statistics (Descriptive: Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, and Inferential Statistics: Pearson’s r, Regression Analysis, Chi-square, T-test, and ANOVA). Students are liable to pay extra fee for SPSS class as per guidelines of Campuses/Colleges.


Anand, S. (2000). The Measurement of income inequality. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Baskota, S. (2006). Statistical methods for rural development. Kathmandu: New Hira Books Enterprises.

Burrough, P.A. (1986). Principles of geographical information systems for land resource assessment. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Chou, Y. (1969). Statistical analysis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Cochran, W.J. (1977). Sampling techniques. New York: Wiley.

Croxton, F.E. Cowden D.J. & Klein, S. (1988). Applied general statistics. New Delhi: Prentice – Hall of India Limited.

Dooley, D. (1997). Social research methods. New Delhi: Prentice – Hall of India Private Limited.

Freund, J.E. (1984). Modern elementary statistics. New Jersey: Prentice – Hall Inc.

Goon, A.M., Gupta M.K. & Gupta B.D. (1965). Fundamentals of statistics. (Volumes One and Two). Calcutta: The World Press Private Limited.

Gupta, S. (1993). Research Methodology and statistical techniques. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications.

Gupta S.P. (1987). Statistical methods. New Delhi: S. Chand and sons.

Kanel, N.R. (1993). Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient: Conceptual considerations. The Economic Journal of Nepal, 16 (4/64), 221-230.

Kanel, N.R. (1995). Gini coefficient and Kanel’s Reduction. The Economic Journal of Nepal, Vol. 18 (4/72), 173-185.

Khatri, B. B.(2012). Statistics in education. Kathmandu: Kriti Publication.

Lipsehutz, S. (1981). Theory and problems in probability, SI (Metric Ed.). Singapore: McGraw-Hill, Schaum’s Outline Series.

National Planning Commission (NPC), (2018). Nepal Multidimensional Poverty Index: Analysis Towards Action. Nepal: Government of Nepal

………………………………… (NPC) (2014). Nepal human development report 2014: Beyond geography, unlocking human potential. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.

Spiegel, M.R. (2002). Statistics (Third Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill, Schaum’s outline series.

Spiegel, M.R. Schiller, J. & Srinivasan, R. (2004). Probability and statistics (Second Edition). New Delhi: McGraw Hill.

Subedi, P.K. (2012). Foundation of scientific research. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar

Subedi, P.K. (2010). Social research methods. Kathmandu: Kirti Publication

Yamane, T. (1967). Statistics: An introductory analysis. New York: Harper and Row.

Evaluation System

Internal Evaluation40%
External Examination (Semester final written test)60%

Evaluation Parameters for Internal Examination

Evaluation ParametersWeight (%)
Term paper10
Presentation, positive role in discussion and participation5
Mid-term examination10
Attendance and Punctuality5


The instructor(s) will give assignment individually to the students, which they must submit within the stipulated time and framework. The stipulated time for submission of the assignment, and quality of the work done, creativity of the student etc. will be taken as the major criteria of evaluation.

Presentation, positive role in discussion and participation

This can be individual as well as group work assigned by instructor. A topic will be provided to each individual/group. It will be evaluated individually as well on a group basis.

Attendance and Punctuality

The students should regularly attend the classes in time and participate in discussion . 80% percent class attendance is mandatory for the students to appear in the End-Term examination. Below 80% attendance of the total working days in a subject will as disqualify the students for to the end term examination. The attendance of the students will be evaluated as follows:

Attendance Evaluation System

96% and above5

The participation, discussion and punctuality of the students will also be assessed by the instructor regularly.

Term paper

Term paper must be prepared by the use of computer in a standard format of technical writing based on data and must contain maximum 5000 words in a given format. It should be prepared and submitted individually. The stipulated time for submission of the assignment, and quality of the work done, creativity of the student etc. will be taken as the major criteria of evaluation.

Mid-Term Examinations

Each student has to sit in midterm examination to qualify for the end term external