Course Title: Environment and Development

Course Code. RDS 426                                                                                                 Full Marks: 70

Year: Fourth                                                                                                             Pass Marks: 28

Paper: VIII                                                                                                    Teaching Hours: 105


Course Objectives

  • To impart knowledge on interrelationship between environment and development, environmental conservation policies adopted by Nepal and the pattern of use of environmental resources.
  • To familiarize students to the issues involved in the factors of environmental degradation and natural resource management.

Contents                                                                                                                                           LH

Unit-I: Introduction to Environment                                                                                              15

1.1 Meaning and Types of Environment

1.2 Meaning and Types of Ecology

1.3 Environment and Development: Interrelationship

1.4 UN Conference on Environment and Development (Summary)

1.5 Meaning and Types of Natural Resources

1.6 Status and Distribution of Natural Resources (Land, Water, Forest and Pasture) in Nepal

Unit-II: Introduction to Natural Resource Management                                                              20

2.1 Meaning and Scope of Natural Resource Management

2.2 Principles of Natural Resource Management

2.3 Approaches to Natural Resource Management

2.3.1 Top-down Approach (Command and Control)

2.3.2 Community-based Natural Resource Management Approach

2.3.3 System Approach

2.3.4 Capacity Building Approach

2.3.5 Institutional Development Approach

2.4 Importance of Natural Resource Management for Development

2.5 Conflict on Natural Resources:  Meaning, Nature, Actors, Cause, Consequences and Mitigating Measures

Unit-III: Interrelationship between Human Communities and Environments                           20

3.1 Meaning of Carrying Capacity

3.1.1 Human Growth and Carrying Capacity

3.2 Human and Environment Relationship: Approaches and Thoughts

3.2.1 Determinism or Environmentalism: Pristine State

3.2.2 Possibilism or Developmentalism: Change State

3.3 Influences of Environment on Human (different physical factors)

3.4 Human’s Influences on Environment: Functional Landscape, Ecumene and Esthetic

Unit-IV: Land, Forest and Water Resource Management                                                           25

4.1 Land Resource Management

4.1.1 Productivity and fertility of Land

4.1.2 Production Practices: Shifting Cultivation, Subsistence Farming, Intensive Farming, Commercial Farming, Integrated Farming and Transhumance

4.1.3 Organic Farming: Meaning, Prospects and Challenges.

4.1.4 Land and Pasture Land Conservation Methods

4.2 Forest Resource Management

4.2.1 Meaning and Types of forest resources in Nepal

4.2.2 Meaning, Principles and Importance of Community Forestry

4.2.3 Scientific Forest Management:  Meaning, Scope and Methods

4.2.4 Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs): Meaning, prospects and importance

4.3 Water Resources Management

4.3.1 Wetland: Meaning, Importance and Threats

4.3.2 Watershed: Meaning, objectives, types and Challenges

4.3.3 Water resources management practices in Nepal: Indigenous and induced

Unit-V: Environmental Issues in Nepal                                                                              15

5.1 Environmental Degradation and Depletion: Meaning, causes, consequences and Mitigation Measures

5.2 Soil Erosion: Meaning, causes, consequences and controlling measures

5.3 Deforestation and Desertification: Meaning, Causes, Impacts and Controlling Measures

5.4 Climate Change: Meaning, Causes, State, and Impacts on agriculture and livelihoods

5.5 Climate Change Adaptation: Meaning and Strategies

Unit-VI: Plan and Policies of Natural Resource Management

6.1 Concept of Environmental Resource Planning and Management                        10

6.2 World Conservation Strategy

6.3 National Policies and Programmes for natural resource management in Nepal with reference to Land, forest, pasture land and water

6.4 Role of Local Organizations for the natural resources management (Religious Organizations, CBOs, User’s Group, NGOs and Civil Society)


ADB, (1986). Environmental Planning and Management, Asian Development Bank, Manila.

Chaudhari, R. (2058), Sustainable Development & Local Community, Pro Public Forum for People Conservation, Kathmandu.

Cohen, Joel, E. (1995). Population Growth and Earth’s Human Carrying Capacity. Science, 269, 341-346.

Dahal, M.K. and D.R. Dahal (1998). Environment and Sustainable Development: Issues in Nepalese perspective. NEFAS, Kathmandu.

FAO, (1993). The Challenges of Sustainable Forest Management: What Future for the World’s Forest. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

FAO, (1995). Implementing Sustainable Forest Management in Asia and Pacific: Proceeding of a Regional Expert Consolation Held in Bangkok, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.

ICIMOD (2006), Environment Assessment of Nepal: Emerging Issues and Challenges, Kathmandu. 

Miller, G. Tyler (1988). Environmental Science an Introduction, Wadsworth Publishing Company, California, USA.

Oli, K.P. (1998). Conflict Resolution and Mediation in Natural Resources Management in Nepal. (IUCN), Kathmandu.

Pradhan, P.K. (2006), Environment and Natural Resources: Concepts, Methods, Planning and Management. Quest Publication, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal.

Sapkota, B.D. and Sapkota, K.N. (2075). “Rural Resources, Environment and Management”, Vidhyarthi  Pustak Bhandar, Bhotahity, Kathmandu.

Shrestha, K.B. (1992) Man and Environment in Environment Vol. 2, No. 2 June Nepal Environment Conservation Group, Nepal.

Sing, A.K., Kumra, V.K; Singh. J (1987). Forest Resource Economy and Environment, Concept Publishing Company, New Delhi.

Singh, S. (1999). Environmental Geography, Prayag Pustak Bhawan, India.

Sterner, Thomas (2003) Policy Instruments for Environment and Natural Resources Management, Resource for the Future, USA.

UNESCO (1970) “Use and Conservation of Biosphere”, Natural Resources Research, 10, Paris.

Upreti, B.R. (2001). Conflict Management in Natural Resources: A Study of Land, Water and Forest Conflict in Nepal.

Weiss, Edith Brown (1992). United Nations Conference on environment and development. International Legal Materials, 31 (4). Stable URL:

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