PhD First Semester

Course Title: Socio-Economic and Political History of Nepal

Course Code: RDS 751                                                                        Credit hours: 3

Semester: First                                          Teaching hours: 48

Level: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)                                                                             

Course Objectives

This paper offers a comprehensive exploration of the peoples and cultures of the Nepal through ethnographic materials that draw on the lifeways of populations living in Nepal. Some of the cultural issues to be examined through these sources include forms of social life, ethnic diversity, political and economic history. The intention of this course is to raise key development issues in a comparative framework using both historical trajectories as well as current debates on the patterns of long term development.

Course Outlines                                                                                                    LH

Unit I: Socio Economic History of Nepal after the Unification (1768-1846)                                                                                          15

  1. Environment, State and Society in the Central Himalaya to 1743
  2. Unification and Sanskritization, 1743-1885
  3. Nepal Under the Shamasher Rana, 1885-1951
  4. The Monarchy in Ascendance: Domestic Politics and Foreign Relations 1951-1991
  5. The quest for “Development”: Economy and Environment, 1951-1991
  6. Lifestyles, Vales, Identities: Changes in Nepalese Society
  7. Democracy and Disillusionment: Nepal since 1991

Unit II: Understanding Change: Marxism and Dependency Theory        15

  1. Population Growth and Agrarian Change: 1750-1950
  2. The Crisis of Agriculture: 1950-1980
  3. The Economic Basis of Social Inequality
  4. Land Reform 1964
  5. Development and Underdevelopment: A Preliminary Sociological Perspective

Unit III: Caste System in Nepal                                                                       9

  1. The Substantiation of the Hierarchy; The Dimension of Hierarchy; Caste and Social Estate
  2. Caste and Society
  3. Values and Personality Factors

Unit IV: Ethnicity in Nepal                                                                                   9

  1. State and Society in Nepal
  2. Social Composition of Population in Nepal
  3. Nation Building and Multi-Ethnicity


  • Bista, D. B. (2008). Fatalism and development: Nepal’s struggle for modernization. Kolkata: Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd.
  • Blaikie, P, J. Camreon & D. Seddon (2007). Nepal in crisis: Growth and stagnation at the periphery.  India: Adroit Publishers.
  • Burghat, R. (1996). The formation of the concept of nation-state in Nepal. In C.J. Fuller & J. Spencer (Eds.) The conditions of listening (pp. 226-260). New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Dahal, Dilli Ram (2014). Social composition of population: caste/ethnicity and religion in Nepal [Monograph]. Population Monograph of Nepal, Vol II, 1-50
  • Gellner, D. N. (1997). “Ethnicity and Nationalism in the World’s only Hindu State ”. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.), Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp. 471-495). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Gellner, D. N., J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.) (1997). Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom: The politics of culture in contemporary Nepal. The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Gurung, Harka (1997). State and society in Nepal. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.) Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp. 495-532). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Gurung, Harka (2003). Social demography of Nepal: Census 2001. Nepal: Himal Books.
  • Höfer, A. (1979). The caste hierarchy and the state in Nepal: A study of Muluki Ain of 1854. Innsbruck: Universitätsverlang Wagner.
  • Hutchinson, John & Anthony D. Smith (1996). Introduction. In John Hutchinson and Anthony D. Smith (Eds.), Ethnicity. New York: Oxford Press
  • J. Pfaff-Czarnecka (1997): Vestiges and visions: Cultural change in the process of nation building in Nepal”. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.), Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp.419-470). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Mishra, Chaitanya. 1987. “Development and Underdevelopment: A Preliminary Sociological Perspective”, Occasional Papers in Sociology and Anthropology.
  • Regmi, M. Chandra (1978). Land tenure and taxation in Nepal. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar
  • Regmi, M. Chandra (1999). A study in Nepali economic history 1768-1846. Delhi: Adroit Publishers.
  • Regmi, Mahesh C. (2011). Nepal, an historical miscellany. India: Adroit Publishers
  • Regmi, Mahesh C. (2011). Nepal, an historical miscellany. India: Adroit Publishers
  • Regmi, Mahesh Chandra. (1999). A Study in Nepali Economic History 1768-1846. Delhi: Adroit Publishers.
  • Regmi, Mahesh Chandra. Land Ownership in Nepal
  • Seddon, David (1987). Nepal: A state of poverty. New Delhi: Vikash Publications.
  • Sharma, Prayag Raj (1997). Nation building, multi-ethnicity and the Hindu state. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.), Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp. 471-495). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Whelpton, J. (2005). A history of Nepal. UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Whelpton, J. (1997). ‘Political identity in Nepal: State, nation, and community’. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (Eds.), Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp. 39-78). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.

Course Title: Economics of Development

Course Code: RDS 752                                                                        Credit hours: 3

Semester: Second                                           Teaching hours: 48

Level: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)                                                                             

Course Objectives

This paper focuses on both theoretical and practical knowledge to tackle key issues relating to development. The major integrates macroeconomic issues with underlying microeconomic processes, emphasizing the importance of the global economic environment including domestic institutions, regulatory frameworks and socioeconomic groups. It pays particular attention to the impact of international and domestic economic policies on growth, poverty and income distribution in developing countries, and seeks to bring out the fundamental linkages between economic growth and human development.

Course Outlines                                                                                                     LH

Unit I: Development and Growth                                                                        12

  1. Concept and Patterns of Economic Growth and Development and Challenges
  2. Measuring Economic Growth and Development
  3. Theories of Economic Growth and Development: Harrod-Domar, Solow and Swan, Endogenous Growth
  4. Historical growth Experience of Developed Countries, East and Southeast Asia and Their Relevance in Developing Countries

Unit II: Distribution and Human Resources                                                  12

  1. Transition from Planned to Market Economy and the Role of State (in Liberalization and Globalization)
  2. Inequality and Poverty (with example of MPI and Labour Force Surveys)
  3. Population (Malthus Theory and Harris-Todaro Model)
  4. Education and Health (with indices and indicators)
  5. Values, Institutions and Civil Society

Unit III: Macroeconomics Policies for Development                                   12

  1. Investment and Savings
  2. Fiscal and Monetary Policies
  3. Financial Economic Development: Growth, Technology and Distribution Implications of FDI and Foreign Aid
  4. Sustainable Development Goals (with example of Nepal)
  5. Impact of Privatization, Liberalization and Globalization

Unit IV: Agricultural Trade and Sustainability                                              12

  1. Role of Agriculture in Development
  2. Agricultural Transformation and Rural Development: Agricultural Stagnation, Commercialization and Growth (with example of Agriculture Censuses, Nepal)
  3. Economics of Trade and Market Demand
  4. Food and Agricultural Policy
  5. Nexus between Development and Sustainability


  • Chang, Ha-Joon (2000). Kicking Away the Ladder: Development Strategy in Historical Perspective. London: Anthem Press.
  • Colman, David & Trevor, Young (1997). Principles of agricultural economics: Markets and prices in less developed countries. UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Cypher, James, M. & James L. Dietz (1997). The process of economic development. London and New York: Routledge
  • Hansson, Göte (ed.) (2003). Trade, growth and development: The role of politics and development. London and New York: Routledge
  • Jhingan, M. L. (2011). The economics of development and planning (40th Edition). India: Vrinda Publication (P) Ltd. 
  • Perkins, Dwight.H., Steven Radelet, David L. Lindauer & Steven A. Block (2013). Economics of development (Seventh edition). USA: W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.
  • National Planning Commission (NPC), (2018). Nepal multidimensional poverty Index: Analysis towards action. Nepal: Government of Nepal
  • National Planning Commission (NPC), (2017). Nepal’s sustainable development goals: Baseline report. Nepal: Government of Nepal
  • ………………………………… (NPC) (2014). Nepal human development report 2014: Beyond geography, unlocking human potential. Kathmandu: Government of Nepal.
  • UNDP, 2018. Human development indices indicators and indices: 2018 statistical update. New York: UNDP

Course Title: Socio-Cultural Perspectives for Development

Course Code: RDS 753                                                                        Credit hours: 3

Semester: First                                           Teaching hours: 48

Level: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)                                                                             

Course Objectives

This paper introduces the study of culture and development in comparative perspective. Examples from societies illustrate the basic principles of formation, structure, and distribution of human institutions and development. Of special concern is the contribution and knowledge that cultural diversity makes toward understanding the problems of the modern world.

Course Outlines                                                                                                    LH

Unit I: Fundamental Theory of State and Culture                                        15

  1. Theory of Social Science (Comte, Marx, Durkheim and Weber)
  2. Institutions and Social Evolution (Talcott Parsons)
  3. Theory of Communicative Action (Jürgen Habermas)
  4. Hegemony (Antoni Gramsci)
  5. Disciplinary Society (Michel Foucault)

Unit II: Culture, Development and Social Theory                                         9

  1. On Culture and Development
  2. Expanding the Boundaries of Development Discourse
  3. Development, Culture and Human Existence

Unit III: Culture, Caste/Ethnicity and Development                                     12

  1. Caste/Ethnic Origin of Nation
  2. Cultural Liberty and Human Development
  3. Challenges for Cultural Liberty
  4. Building Multicultural Democracies
  5. Confronting Movements for Cultural Domination
  6. Globalization and Cultural Choice

Unit IV: Post-Modern Critiques of Development                                           12


  • Barth, F. (1969). Introduction. In F. Barth (Ed.), Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of cultural difference (pp. 9-38). USA: Waveland Press, Inc.
  • Beukelaer, Christian De, Miikka Pyykkonen, J.P. Singh (Eds.) (2015). Globalization, culture, and development: The UNESCO convention on cultural diversity. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Clammer, John (2012). Culture, Development and Social Theory: Towards an Integrated Social Development. USA: Zedbooks Ltd.
  • Cohen, M. P. and R.W. Shenton (1996). Doctrines of development. Landon and New York: Routledge.
  • Dumont, L (1960). Homo hierarchies: The caste system and its implication. New Delhi: Oxford Press
  • Durkheim, Emile (1953). Sociology and Philosophy. London: Cohen & West Ltd.
  • Gellner, D. N. (1997). Introduction: ethnicity and nationalism in the World’s only Hindu state’. In D. N. Gellner, J. Pfaff-Czarnecka & J. Whelpton (eds.), Nationalism and ethnicity in a Hindu Kingdom (pp. 3-32). The Netherlands: Horwood Academic Publishers.
  • Giddens, Anthony (1970). Marx, Weber, and the development of capitalism. Sociology, 4(3), 289-310.
  • Habermas, Jürgen (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action, 2 vols. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
  • Henderson, A. M and Talcott Parsons (Eds.) (1947). Max Weber: The theory of social and economic organization. New York: The Oxford University Press.
  • Johnson, Matthew (Ed.) (2012). The legacy of Marxism: Contemporary challenges, conflicts and developments. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • Martineau, Harriet (2000). The Positive Philosophy of Auguste Comte. London: Batoche Books.
  • Mayhew, Leon H (Ed.) (1982). Parson, Talcott on institution and evolution: Selected writings. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Mclellan David (Ed.) (1977). Karl Marx: Selected writings. Oxford University Press
  • Mcnally, Mark (Ed.) (2015). Antoni Gramsci. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Nussbaum, Martha C. and Jonathan Gover (Eds.) (1995). Women, culture, and development: A study of human capabilities. Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • Parsons, Talcott (1948). The Position of Sociological Theory. American Sociological Review, 13(2), 156-171.
  • Perelman, Michael (1978). Karl Marx’s theory of science. Journal of Economic Issues, 12(4), 859-870.
  • Rabinow, Paul (Ed.) (1984). The Foucault reader. New York: Pantheon Book.
  • Radcliffe, Sarah A. (Ed.) (2006). Culture and development in globalizing world: Geographies, actors and paradigms. London and New York:  Routledge Tylor and Francis Group.
  • Rockmore, Tom (2002). Marx after Marxism: The philosophy of Karl Marx. UK: Blackwell Publishers.
  • Sach, Wolfgang (Ed.) (2010). The development dictionary: A guide to knowledge as power. London and New York: Zedbooks Pvt.
  • Seidman, Steve (1994). Contested knowledge: Social theory today (Third edition). Blackwell Publishing.
  • Smith, A.D. (1986). The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Thomson, Kenneth (1985). Readings from Emile Durkheim. London and New York:  K. Thomson/Ellis Horwood Limited.
  • UNDP (2004). Human Development Report 2004: Cultural liberty in today’s diverse world. USA: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

Course Title: Theories of Development

Course Code: RDS 754                                                                        Credit hours: 3

Semester: First                                           Teaching hours: 48

Level: Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)                                                                             

Course Objectives

This paper introduces both critical reading of classical and alternative theories of development. It also brings to the fore the challenges these theories have faced from different quarters such as the post-development and anti-globalization approaches. The paper scrutinizes debates on substantive topics in the theoretical interpretations of development and underdevelopment including the governance and development to shaping the knowledge on local governance.

Course Outlines                                                                                                   LH

Unit I: Conception and Dimensions of Development                                      9

  1. Development: Defining the Terrain
  2. Approaches to Development
  3. Post-Development and Alternative Approaches of Development
  4. Rural Development: Issues and Debates

Unit II: International Context of National Development                            18

  1. Early Modernization Theory
  2. Neo-evolutionism and Modernization Theory
  3. Theories of Underdevelopment and World System
  4. Post-Modernization Critiques of Development

Unit III: Political Economy                                                                                    12

  1. Introduction to Political Economy
  2. Development and Globalization
  3. Neo-Liberalism and Capital Economy
  4. Contemporary Political Economy of Nepal

Unit IV: Governance and Development                                                              9

  1. Global Governance
  2. Local Governance and Development
  3. Local Governance in Developing Countries
  4. Opportunities and Challenges of Local Governance in the Federal Context of Nepal


  • Berger, Guy (1992). Social Structure and rural development in the Third World. UK: Cambridge University Press
  • Cadman, Tim (2012). Evaluating the quality and legitimacy of global governance: A Theoretical and Analytical. The International Journal of Social Quality, 2(1), 4-23.
  • Craig, David & Doug Porter (2006). Development beyond neoliberalism? Governance, poverty reduction and political economy. London: Routledge Publishing and Taylor and Francis Group.
  • Desai, V., & Potter, R. B. (2013). The companion to development studies. London: Routledge.
  • Harrison, David (1988). The sociology of modernization and development. London: Routledge Publishing Taylor and Francis Group
  • Herrera, Eduardo Wills (2016). Governance and development: The importance of legitimacy and institutional change. In Georgina M. Gómez & Peter Knorringa (Eds.), Local governance, economic development and institutions (pp. 19-38). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kothari, U. (Ed.). (2016). A radical history of development studies: individuals, institutions and ideologies. New Delhi: Zed Books Ltd.
  • Kothari, U., & Minogue, M. (Eds.). (2001). Development theory and practice: Critical perspectives. USA: Macmillan International Higher Education.
  • Parfitt, Trevor (2002). The end of development? Modernity, post-modernity and development. London: Pluto Press
  • Pieterse, J. N. (2010). Development theory. London: Sage.
  • Potter, R., Binns, T., Elliott, J. A., Nel, E., & Smith, D. W. (2017). Geographies of development: An introduction to development studies. London: Routledge
  • Putzel, James (2005). Globalization, liberalization, and prospects for the state.International Political Science Review, 26 (1), 5-16.
  • Rapley, J. (2013). Understanding development: Theory and practice in the third world. UK: Routledge.
  • Rittberge, Volker (Ed.) (2001). Global governance and the united nations system. Japan: United Nations Universities
  • Shah, Anwar & Sana Shah (2006). The new vision of local governance and the evolving roles of local governments. In Anwar Shah (Ed.), Local governance in developing countries (pp. 1-43). Washington: The World Bank.
  • Smith, Tony (1985). Requiem or new agenda for Third World studies? World politics, 37(4), 532-561.
  • Upreti, B. R., Manandhar, P., & Sapkota, M. (2014). Contested Development in Nepal: Experiences and Reflections. S. R. Sharma (Ed.). Department of Development Studies, School of Arts, Kathmadu University and Nepal Centre for Contemporary Research.
  • Willis, Kate (2005). Theories and practices of development. London: Routledge Publishing Taylor & Francis Group